6 Reduce child mortality
Where we are?
Tanzania is likely to achieve MDG 4. Under-five mortality decreased from 191 per thousand live births in 1990 to 133 in 2005 and further to 81 in 2010 in the Mainland and from 202 in 1990 to 101 in 2005 in Zanzibar. Infant mortality declined from 115 (1990) to 68 (2004) and further to 51 in 2010 (Mainland) and from 120 in 1990 to 83 in 2005 in Zanzibar. The most significant contribution to the reduction of under-five mortality is improved control measures of malaria, Acute Respiratory Infections, diarrhoea; improved personal hygiene, environmental sanitation; and preventive, promotive as well as curative health services. The proportion of children vaccinated against measles increased from 80 per cent in 2005 to 85 per cent in 2010. With regard to malaria a more effective drug treatment regime has been introduced. More children (under 5 years of age) increasingly sleep under nets, from 21 per cent in 1999 to 36 per cent in 2004 and to 64 percent in 2010. The proportion of children with fever declined from 35 per cent in 1999 to 23 per cent in 2004 and 16 percent in 2010.
Most child deaths are due to malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, malnutrition and complications of low birth weight as well as HIV and AIDS. Malnutrition is the underlying factor in more than 50 per cent of child deaths. So is neonatal deaths, accounting for 50 per cent of infant mortality. Census data and those from surveillance sites suggest a decline in both infant and under-five mortality rate.
The 8 Millennium Development Goals
- 1 Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
- 2 Achieve universal primary education
- 3 Promote gender equality and empower women
- 4 Reduce child mortality
- 5 Improve maternal health
- 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
- 8 Develop a global partnership for development
Targets for MDG4
- Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five
- Under-five mortality rate
- Infant mortality rate
- Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles